In this tutorial we will discuss couple of problematic scenarios and how to use wireshark command line tools to analyse the packet. This kind of a bash script was required in a project, where we needed to read the alert log line by line, and without missing anything, writing all the Oracle alert log messages to the syslog. sudo apt-get install wireshark libpcap0. com to monitor and detect vulnerabilities using our online vulnerability scanners. 2 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, install and run Wireshark (formerly Ethereal) over the command line. Linux who command - Displays Who is on the System December 22, 2013 Updated August 22, 2018 By Pungki Arianto LINUX COMMANDS , LINUX HOWTO As a system administrator, we need to ensure who is on the system on a particular time. 04 LTS machine. Here is a view of those utilities (I got to this by (in Windows) clicking Help> About Wireshark> Folders Tab> and then selecting the hyperlink for the Program Files). 4, “Mailing Lists” for details how to subscribe to this list. Packet Sender is a free utility to for sending / receiving of network packets. The YoLinux portal covers topics from desktop to servers and from developers to users. Install and run Wireshark on the command line (CentOS 5. , CentOS 7, you can install the command line interface (CLI) version of the software, TShark, with yum install wireshark. exe" -i 1 -F libpcap -W MyFile. files:200 generates thousands of logs. Today, I wanted to test network throughput via command line with at least 3 tools. ssrc -e udp. Note that the answer given for the first question I linked passes in the ssh password on the command line, have you tried that?. Next we will use wireshark on the jumphost to examine the queries and responses edns0 information to see the ECS (client subnet) information. Although dig is normally used with command-line arguments, it also has a batch mode of operation for reading lookup requests from a file. But that’s not all command line does. 04 To Ubuntu 19. Today, I want to share a bash script that I wrote yesterday. Run Wireshark as root on Kali Linux by do son · July 12, 2017 Wireshark is used for network analysis and troubleshooting by allowing users to capture network traffic and view packets. NMAP uses are more wide and we can easily gather the devices and the Network peripherals around you. This article will help you to how to connect to the FTP server using the command line and Download and Upload Files using FTP protocol between the FTP server local system. For additional Flatpak commands, enter: flatpak --help. But due to trademark issues the project was renamed Wireshark. Unlock this content with a FREE 10-day. w - display who is logged into the Linux and Unix-like server, and what they are doing at command execution time. 4, "Mailing Lists" for details how to subscribe to this list. Figure 5 shows using these commands in a CLI on a Debian-based Linux host. 4 Getting to the Command Line. 59 Linux Networking commands and scripts September 30, 2019 by Hayden James, in Blog Linux. To run it in Windows, open the Command Prompt and run nslookup on the command line. exe file launches the GUI version you're familiar with, but you can also launch Wireshark from the command line with a number of parameters; type Wireshark -h for a list of options and/or create shortcuts to launch Wireshark with any of those options. I installed an application called Wireshark, using: sudo apt-get install wireshark I searched it and launched it. So if you are on a slower system, you are better off with the command line than GUI. This BACnet protocol stack library provides a BACnet application layer, network layer and media access (MAC) layer communications services. After a long time, I found my self writing scripts again. Which command used in Linux is faster and more powerful than netstat? Which tool is a command line alternative to. 04 LTS (Xenial Xerus) system with screenshots and instructions. 2) Using CentOS 5. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Race condition in backend/ctrl. The course includes full online access to the book content, streaming videos, progress tracking, exercises, and community exercise answers. Discover why thousands of customers use hackertarget. Wireshark is the world's foremost network protocol analyzer. You may have to wait up to a minute or more for the test to. As you press (window + R) it will open run command window in the run command window simply type CMD. Step 3: Open Wireshark and start it on PC1. 3 on Debian GNU/Linux 9 (stretch) I got it to run with the following content for the "Remote capture command" input field: /usr/sbin/tcpdump -i eth0 -U -w - 'not (host 192. Wireshark en ligne de commande¶ 1. views no and Wireshark development. TShark's native capture file format is pcapng format, which is also the format used by wireshark and various other tools. Packet sniffer is a computer software that captures the incoming and outgoing traffic over a network. Application > Kali Linux > Top 10 Security Tools > Wireshark In Wireshark go to Capture > Interface and tick the interface that applies to you. That's a tilde followed by a period. The former is a versatile pcap editor which can filter or split a pcap file in various fashions. This tutorial will help you to hack wifi password Using command prompt …. Wireshark can be used for network troubleshooting, analyzing, software & communication protocol development & also for education purposed. While there are some limitations, Kali Linux brings a lot of new command line utilities that will be very helpful to the right professional. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6; Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5; Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4; Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3; wireshark; Issue. To see a list of interfaces: netsh interface show interface. The following man pages are part of the Wireshark distribution. Start Wireshark from the command line. I installed Wireshark by: yum install wireshark Now when I try running following command line: wireshark -c 100 -k -Q -w - I receive: (wireshark:25796): Gtk-WARNING **: cannot open display: Any id. TShark is able to detect, read and write the same capture files that are supported by Wireshark. Linux/Unix and Microsoft platforms today. 3 on Debian GNU/Linux 9 (stretch) I got it to run with the following content for the "Remote capture command" input field: /usr/sbin/tcpdump -i eth0 -U -w - 'not (host 192. On Mac and Linux, you can also install from command line. If the command does show a list of devices, what does tshark -D display?. The default protocol while using hping DDoS is NBNS protocol. Running the command vlc --help will create a. It lists out all the tcp, udp socket connections and the unix socket connections. Mergecap. " When you do this, a black box full of white text will appear with the prompt. For Linux, Wireshark can be installed through command also. I believe ls command is the first command you may use when you get into the command prompt of Linux Box. But as some of. cap file, and then go to File->Export and choose the options that you want. Select in the prompt. Measure Internet Connection Speed from the Linux Command Line. As you press (window + R) it will open run command window in the run command window simply type CMD. After many experiments with vnstat and other command line based apps I settled for this GUI trafiic monitor: ‘NTM – network traffic monitor’ and it is just great. Groups allow system administrators to apply certain permissions or access to groups of users. 10; nrfjprog - available in nRF5x-Command-Line-Tools; NCP firmware binary; Obtaining the firmware. If you are new to Kali Linux world, check out the list of all available Kali Linux commands for both newbies and advance users to ease up with Terminal. An archive is a single file that contains any number of individual files plus information to allow them to be restored to their original form by one or more extraction programs. To install the software on your Arch PC, you must manually enable "Community," as not every distribution has it turned on by default. As you can see in the wireshark log, there are massive connection to 192. It allows to. These concepts are further developed in the follow-on course, Red Hat System Administration II(RH134). More details can be found at Section 10. This method is not actually hacking but it is kind of spoofing trick that might work if your victim is a layman. What is Linux whois Command? Explanation. It works with SNMP and presents the network statistics in the form of easy to understand charts. Provides system level APIs for faster access. bash_profile file. Enter commands into that command prompt, specifying connection options. This library contains a large selection of free, on-line technical books and guides in a wide range of categories. The base package provides command-line functions only. You will usually see this on a shell prompt on the system you are running, after the [email protected] Wireshark is packet capturing tool, which have GUI option. Use swupd to install and manage bundles. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. Tail is Windows Resource kit command, which is used from command prompt to print last ‘N’ lines of any text file. As you have seen, Wireshark collects everything by default. As in the previous lab, we will be using a new version of the dig command. (Linux -- /var/log/messages in our case). 0 Ulf Lamping, Richard Sharpe, NS Computer Software and Services P/L Ed Warnicke,. What is Wireshark? Wireshark is a simple to install and easy to use packet capturing tool that is supported on both Windows and Linux. It also saves system resources which are consumed by GUIs. Apart from connected sockets it can also list listening sockets that are waiting for incoming connections. dumpcap Command Line Tool. Wireshark can be used for network troubleshooting, analyzing, software & communication protocol development & also for education purposed. It installs the tools in the default directory C:\Program Files\Windows Resource Kits\Tools. It can capture and decode live packets on the wire, and show decoded packet content in a human-friendly fashion. We can start a very basic packet capture by invoking dumpcap with the command below. You can also start Wireshark from the command line interface, but it can also be started from most Window managers as well. How To Use Wireshark To Inspect Network Traffic. Running Wireshark as root is insecure. Capture files can be programmatically edited or converted via command-line switches to the "editcap" program. 4, “Mailing Lists” for details how to subscribe to this list. I would like to add a line to decrypt the main file before filtering and save it in a decrypted format. CompTIA Security+ Certification Exam SY0-501 Command-Line Utilities Quiz. Here is the screenshot. Capture files can be programmatically edited or converted via command*line switches to the "editcap" program. The "Capture Interfaces" dialog box When you select. It lets you see what's happening on your network at a microscopic level and is the de-facto standard across many commercial and non-profit enterprises, government agencies, and educational institutions. This tutorial is based on these. One thing that makes tshark more useful is adding the tshark. A heap-based buffer overflow flaw was found in the way Wireshark handled Endace ERF (Extensible Record Format) capture files. 11a/b/g/n traffic. This is the default terminal program for *nix systems; there are other programs that give access to a system shell, which are also acceptable. This also means the built in Windows scheduled task feature can be used to schedule a capture. Getting Started with vSphere Command-Line Interfaces gives an overview of command-line interfaces in vSphere and gets you started with ESXi Shell commands and vCLI (VMware® vSphere Command-Line Interface) commands. Older questions and. Wireshark is a GUI-based packet capture and sniffer tool. However, if you want to copy the whole file content to clipboard without opening it, you can use xclip, which is a command line interface to clipboard. And then execute arp -a to make sure ARP entries have been deleted. Wireshark is an essential system administrator and security tool for any network. For those who prefer the command-line zip files (Installation Instructions; Usage Instructions), they are still available. The following is the command to enable decrypted SSL packets during nstrace: start nstrace -size 0 -mode SSLPLAIN. The title of this class is: "Using Wireshark Command Line Tools & Scripting" and was taught by Sake Blok. Kill Processes from Command Prompt Posted in Windows 10 , Windows 8 , Windows 7 , Windows Vista , Windows XP by Steve Sinchak I'm sure you are familiar with the traditional way to kill or end a process in Windows using Task Manager. For the life of me, I could not remember iperf. But that’s not all command line does. -w This option sets the name of the savefile to be used when saving a capture file. The former is a versatile pcap editor which can filter or split a pcap file in various fashions. Packets "received by filter. This command will produce a summary of a pcap with statistics, start / finish times and other details. When two networking devices, like computer, mobile, printer etc, communicate with each other, they exchange information in form of data chunks, also known as protocol packets or messages. If possible. So I'm trying to figure out if I can get the type of device which is hitting our firewall, though the connection is dropped by the firewall. Hi all , I am looking for a command that i can use to filter a particular IP. Wireshark supports a large number of command line parameters. tcpdump command becomes very handy when it comes to. conf(5) file for glibc resolver(3) generated by resolvconf(8) # DO NOT EDIT THIS FI. Wireshark exists in two forms onRHEL 8 / CentOS 8 Linux. To run it in Windows, open the Command Prompt and run nslookup on the command line. " The meaning of this depends on the OS on which you're running tcpdump, and possibly on the way the OS was configured. exe file in your Wireshark installtion folder). 11 layer-2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. Wireshark offers command line options which allows users to capture traffic information through a batch file. tcpdump is a command line network sniffer, used to capture network packets. This was recorded on June 16th, 2016 at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA. -y If a capture is started from the command line with -k, set the data link type to use while capturing packets. If you are on a headless server without GUI, you can still sniff OpenFlow control traffic from the command line. Wireshark. It can capture, dissect, and decode various protocols. Application > Kali Linux > Top 10 Security Tools > Wireshark In Wireshark go to Capture > Interface and tick the interface that applies to you. As most folks who use Wireshark know, Wireshark comes with a collection of command line or terminal based utilities. Wireshark is one of the best tool used for this purpose. 2 or higher is required. SSH has its own command line escape sequences. Linux Command Line Cheat Sheet from DaveChild. ) for the operating system. I will assume that you do have wireless hardware that does work in Linux. Step 2: Delete ARP entry. We can start a very basic packet capture by invoking dumpcap with the command below. Below is the collection of Linux command line tips which I’ve found useful for Linux users. On OS X and Linux systems, use the Terminal application to open a CLI. Use Wireshark's display filters. Select an Interface and Start the Capture. Top 10 Basic Network Troubleshooting Tools Every IT Pro Should Know - select the contributor at the end of the page - When getting started in the networking field, it is important to amass a number of tools that can be used to troubleshoot a variety of different network conditions. UG stands for the network. How can I monitor DHCP traffic from the command line? If you want to monitor DHCP communication between a DHCP server and a client, you can run a packet sniffing tool on. TShark's native capture file format is pcapng format, which is also the format used by wireshark and various other tools. Linux/Unix and Microsoft platforms today. Wireshark 2. I recently bought a TP-LINK TL-WN722N adapter that claims to support Monitor mode and captures any traffic using Wireshark. You can: Choose your favorite GNU/Linux distributions from the Microsoft Store. Note that the answer given for the first question I linked passes in the ssh password on the command line, have you tried that?. androiddump - Provide interfaces to capture from Android devices capinfos - Prints information about capture files captype - Prints the types of capture files. Then open a new terminal shell and enter the following command to create a tunnel (x. Help information available from tshark. Welcome to LinuxQuestions. This wikiHow teaches you how to open the Terminal (command prompt) application in macOS using Launchpad, Spotlight, or Finder. Clear Linux* Project. Read the man pages of the following commands to refresh your memory on some linux commands: mv rmdir pwd cp chmod ls rm kill more mkdir ping tcpdump. In this tutorial,i am going to use kali linux tool to track geolocation of device using mac address?I will also show you how to find Geolocation of an ip address or domain with Nmap?Further by extending the article, How to Do IP Address Geolocation Lookups on Linux using Open Source Tool fern wifi cracker?. Wireshark from the command line - cannot find interface errors at work and having issues getting the command line to work. It is generally, sniffering and analyzing network traffic. Refer to the capture setup pages in the wireshark. Snort is most well known as an IDS. Network Cheat Sheets. Having no GUI only command line interface. You're familiar with Wireshark. views no and Wireshark development. Using Command prompt enable the Hibernate option is very simple way. Top 10 Basic Network Troubleshooting Tools Every IT Pro Should Know - select the contributor at the end of the page - When getting started in the networking field, it is important to amass a number of tools that can be used to troubleshoot a variety of different network conditions. Download and Install Wireshark. Are you running Wireshark from the command line, or from the GUI (double-clicking, menu item, etc. 1Q VLAN Tagging Using the Command Line In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, the 8021q module is loaded by default. How to decrypt Wi-Fi traffic in Wireshark with kali linux. tshark -nr test. Wireshark captures packets from a different type of interfaces and prints them as a floating list to the screen. Target hosts must be specified on the command line unless the --file option is given, in which case the targets are read from the specified file instead, or the --localnet option is used, in which case the targets are generated from the network interface IP address and netmask. rpm for ALT Linux Sisyphus from Classic repository. Wireshark is a free and open-source packet analyzer used for troubleshooting, analysis, and forensics, which has many features and a rich GUI. Run Wireshark as root on Kali Linux by do son · July 12, 2017 Wireshark is used for network analysis and troubleshooting by allowing users to capture network traffic and view packets. Thus, above are the prominent commands of PuTTYgen in Linux operating system. Step2: Execute below command on PC1. Which command used in Linux is faster and more powerful than netstat? Which tool is a command line alternative to. Configure 802. Wireshark is a GUI-based packet capture and sniffer tool. As in the previous lab, we will be using a new version of the dig command. It supports the same options as wireshark. If you are not actively doing it in a command line, see if your computer is connected to a network or VPN. Or you can download and install a superior command shell such as those included with the free Cygwin system. To start Wireshark from GUI, search for wireshark and hit the enter button. For Debian, Ubuntu and other Debian derivatives, continue to step 3. Wireshark is the world's foremost network protocol analyzer. The shasum command will return the file hash, in this case the SHA256 file hash. Using Wireshark on Ubuntu By Gary Sims – Posted on Nov 14, 2013 Nov 14, 2013 in Linux Wireshark is a powerful open source network analyser which can be used to sniff the data on a network, as an aide to troubleshooting network traffic analysis, but equally as an educational tool to help understand the principles of networks and communication. To see what they are, simply enter the command wireshark -h and the help information shown in Example 11. Capturing Wi-Fi WLAN Packets in Wireshark on Linux. If you've ever used Linux or know someone who uses Linux, then you've probably heard of the sudo command. Actually the Nessus gui is quite a good little tool and I have used it many times. In this section we will look at starting it from the command line. I'm not sure why it is complaining about a display, I want to run it on a port. It is not a joke: UEFI and Secure Boot compatible version of TCPDUMP for Windows, signed with every imaginable certificate (SHA-1, SHA-256, EV) and verified by Microsoft. To run it in Windows, open the Command Prompt and run nslookup on the command line. WinDump is a packet analyzer for Windows, command line level. Open/Merge capture files, save, print, export, and quit Wireshark. c in KDM in KDE Software Compilation (SC) 2. 2 or higher is required. If it is not loaded yet, run this command as root: modprobe usbmon. Launch it from the launcher or type the following command in the command line: $ wireshark Installing on Arch Linux. Run the arp command. pcap in your …. Wireshark User’s Guide For Wireshark 2. In this section we will look at starting it from the command line. See Section 11. As in the previous lab, we will be using a new version of the dig command. We’ll review some of the command line tools and outline how to download and install Wireshark on either a PC or MAC. This was recorded on June 16th, 2016 at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA. Posted on 23:17 by Unknown. Change Resolution size in Kali using Command Line Posted in Uncategorized - May 24, 2017 - 2 Comments To change the screen resolution in Kali using the Terminal type. See the section Determining hostname below for help with the hostname. Data display can be refined using a display filter. Timing is a little off but not by much, and it Worked!. 11", "PPP" and "loopback" networks. Jperf can be associated with Iperf to provide a graphical frontend written in Java. Capturing Wi-Fi WLAN Packets in Wireshark on Linux. wtf the telnet session begins saying trying to connect so and so IP, but is there a command that I can type in and know what is the current process happening to. Luckily, Kali Linux, and other Linux distros offer the most powerful network analyzer tool, called Wireshark. By Sandra Henry-Stocker. In the terminal, type the following commands: $ sudo pacman -S wireshark-qt. You can run ncpa. pcap (-w LJ. If Wireshark opened a specially-crafted ERF capture file, it could crash or, possibly, execute arbitrary code as the user running Wireshark. Wireshark 2. The shasum command will return the file hash, in this case the SHA256 file hash. Wireshark provides its features with GUI but if we need command line support Wireshark provides tshark command line tool. 2 Ways to Install Nvidia Driver on Ubuntu 18. Explore 25+ apps like Wireshark, all suggested and ranked by the AlternativeTo user community. I have Linux Mint 19 64-bit Cinnamon. Pass the Wireshark certification exam; About : Wireshark is the world's foremost and most widely-used network protocol analyzer. Omit this option if too much output is generated. It is generally, sniffering and analyzing network traffic. exe executable to your PATH on Windows so you can open a command prompt and use TShark from any directory. I have just installed wireshark-gtk with: sudo apt-get install wireshark-gtk while installing I was asked this: Answering Yes as you can see, as I am the sole. Tshark is a tool or program available on Windows and Linux. Subscribe to Xmodulo. Wireshark provides its features with GUI but if we need command line support Wireshark provides tshark command line tool. Less than 30 kilobytes (KB) in size, the Msxsl. You can tweak netstat commands by adding arguments at the end of the command. It is simple and easy to install wireshark, and this article explains the method to install Wireshark on Debian 8. There are many alternatives to Wireshark for Linux if you are looking to replace it. 0 Ulf Lamping, Richard Sharpe, NS Computer Software and Services P/L Ed Warnicke,. The ARP Command Method. In this tutorial, I have listed 10 useful utility tools for Linux users which will include various network monitoring, system auditing or some another random commands which can help users to enhance their productivity. In the following chapters a lot of screenshots from Wireshark will be shown. Further, I have received comments that this command does not help identify the mac address for a specific device. 0 that relate to web application hacking. This Linux machine has no screen. Here, we are going to show you how to install tcpdump and then we discuss and cover some useful commands with their practical examples. Wireshark is one of the best tool used for this purpose. views no and Wireshark development. Getting started with javascript on command line. It has so many options: you can see the packet dump in your terminal, you can also create a pcap file (to see the…. The add-apt-repository command now supports the "--remove" argument, making it possible to remove PPAs from the command line. androiddump - Provide interfaces to capture from Android devices capinfos - Prints information about capture files captype - Prints the types of capture files. In Kali Linux or any other Linux distribution after installing wireshark it will not detect ethernet interface and its need root privileges to control ethernet interfaces and many network engineers become dismayed the first time they run Wireshark on a Linux machine and find that they don’t have access to any network interfaces. TLSSLed is a Linux shell script used to evaluate the security of a target SSL/TLS (HTTPS) web server implementation. 11 layer-2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. Wireshark also has a command line utility called ‘tshark‘ that performs the same functions as Wireshark but through terminal & not through GUI. 04 (GUI & Command Line) How to Easily Create Windows 10 Bootable USB on Ubuntu or Any Linux Distro; 2 Ways to Upgrade Ubuntu 18. It is not a joke: UEFI and Secure Boot compatible version of TCPDUMP for Windows, signed with every imaginable certificate (SHA-1, SHA-256, EV) and verified by Microsoft. • Start up the Wireshark packet sniffer, and begin Wireshark packet capture. wireshark (1) - Linux Man Pages. Wireshark supports a large number of command line parameters. After downloading the executable, just click on it to install Wireshark. If you prefer to work at the command line, or if you don't have time to grapple with Wireshark's elaborate user interface, you can use Wireshark's little brother Tshark to sniff packets in a terminal window. 1, "Help information available from Wireshark" (or something similar) should be printed. Do you have the deb line uncommented with eh correct url? Wireshark doesn't tpyically play nice with root on standard distros. A-Z of Kali Linux commands are here below: a apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k) apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian) aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian) aspell Spell Checker awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index b basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames. Using command line options for tcpdump. Arch Linux Overview of Arch Linux describing what to expect from an Arch Linux system. To run nslookup in Linux/Unix, you just type the nslookup command on the command line. It is based on sslscan, a thorough SSL/TLS scanner that is based on the openssl library, and on the "openssl s_client" command line tool. The most popular Linux alternative is tcpdump, which is both free and Open Source. The Wireshark. WireShark for Linux features deep inspection of hundreds of protocols, with more. Windows Server How-To. Explore 25+ apps like Wireshark, all suggested and ranked by the AlternativeTo user community. Netstat is a command line utility that can be used to list out all the network (socket) connections on a system. Then, you will gain a deep understanding of SQL and command injection flaws and ways to exploit the flaws. Then sent them out the port, looped it back and captured it with wireshark. I have installed wireshark to my Ubuntu server but when running from the command line using this simple example: wireshark -k -a duration:120 -w wireshark_results I get a display error: ** (wireshark:32689): WARNING **: Could not open X display (wires. The process is very simple and easy to use even for beginners. How To Get a Command Line. org You can start Wireshark from the command line, but it can also be started from most Window managers as well. APT is the Advanced Package Tool, an advanced interface to the Debian packaging system which provides the apt-get program. (pcap - packet capture implemented in the libpcap library under Linux). To dump network traffic from command line in a Wireshark readable format use the following. I installed an application called Wireshark, using: sudo apt-get install wireshark I searched it and launched it. Most of the operating systems has been written in C language. During installation of Kali Linux it ask you to set root password. Interception of passwords with Wireshark Linux terminal commands In all operating systems, including Linux, the term 'command' means either a command line utility. Kismet is an 802. The fc-list command helps you to list all fonts and styles available on the system for applications using fontconfig. Well, if you're willing to not use Wireshark, you can do this out of the box with Microsoft Network Monitor. HTTPie—aitch-tee-tee-pie—is a command line HTTP client with an intuitive UI, JSON support, syntax highlighting, wget-like downloads, plugins, and more. We’re excited to announce that you can now download & install Kali Linux via the Windows Store! Our community expressed great interest in bringing Kali Linux to WSL in response to a blog post on Kali Linux on WSL. But system admins know the power of command line. flatpak run org. Wireshark is a data capturing program that "understands" the structure (encapsulation) of different networking protocols.